In the management of acute and chronic stroke, smartphone apps enhance communication between first responders and waiting hospital staff and reduce door-to-needle time, according to a literature review.
Dr Fabio Pilato
“In clinical practice, guideline-driven patient care is very important in improving diagnosis and outcomes, and apps provide a very practical and easy way to check available guidelines,” senior author Fabio Pilato, MD, a neurologist at Università Campus Bio-Medico in Rome, Italy, told Medscape Medical News.
The review was published Sept. 30 in the Journal of Stroke.
Reviewing the Literature
“My colleagues and I wanted to discover whether smartphone apps, besides just facilitating communication between doctors and their patients, could improve patient care,” said Pilato. “We wanted to see if there were any apps that could guide clinical decisions according to guidelines and whether there were some being used in acute stroke management,” he added.
The investigators reviewed 43 studies of stroke-related mobile phone apps that were designed for the clinical management of stroke between June 1, 2007, when the first iPhone was introduced, and January 31, 2022.
The apps were classified into the following three groups, according to their purpose: primary prevention apps, acute stroke management apps, and postacute stroke apps.
Prevention and Management
The investigators found one primary prevention app, the Stroke Riskometer, that was based on an algorithm derived from the Framingham Stroke Risk Score and was designed to educate patients about diet, physical activity, and the warning signs of stroke. However, their review failed to show that the app was beneficial, compared with standard cardiovascular risk reduction.
Apps appeared to aid acute stroke management, according to the researchers. Prehospital apps, such as iLAMA, Smartphone-Assisted Pre-Hospital Medical Information System, FAST-ED, Egyptian Stroke Network, Act Fast, and the Mayo Clinic Acute Stroke Evaluation app were found to speed up stroke recognition, activate emergency medical services for speedier transport to the hospital, and facilitate communication with in-hospital stroke teams. All these prehospital apps reduced door-to-needle time.
The JOIN app also was shown to significantly reduce door-to-needle time, compared with no app support, in several studies. JOIN consists of a chat, a DICOM viewer, and an encrypted two-way video system for video calls between practitioners, as well as a milestones time stamp to record every step from home to hospital transportation to therapy onset.
StopStroke, another app that focuses on instant communication among physicians and allows real-time sharing of clinical data of stroke patients, reduced door-to-image and door-to-needle time, compared with no app.
Act Fast, which uses a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) calculator, a thrombolysis checklist, and a toolbox to share images and notes among practitioners involved in the decision-making process, decreased door-to-needle time by 16 minutes, compared with no app.
In a study of medical residents, adherence to guidelines was higher in participants who used the Mayo Clinic Acute Stroke Evaluation app, compared with those who did not. Door-to-needle time also was reduced by 16 minutes in the app-assisted group, compared with controls.
Postacute Stroke Apps
The Rehabilitation Guardian app, consisting of a health reminder, consultation, health information and patient diary, gives medical information and provides rehabilitation exercises. Patients can enter their clinical information, and the medical staff can access it and assist with the rehab process remotely.
As for apps for chronic management and secondary prevention, Pilato and colleagues found that the PRESTRO app, which combines motivational support for a healthy lifestyle and tells patients to take their medications and measure their blood pressure, successfully got patients to be more physically active, compared with those who did not use the app.
Another app for secondary prevention, the Korea University Health Monitoring System for Stroke (KUHMS2), reduced blood pressure and glucose levels in patients who used it, compared with those who did not.
Lose It, a weight loss app, is an electronic food journal that shows the values of the macronutrients of foods that the patient consumes, as well as a daily calorie count. The Engaging Everyday Activities (EEA) app effectively reminds patients who have had transient ischemic attacks about daily activities that can reduce their risk for a recurrent attack.
Movies4Stroke features educational videos about first aid, rehabilitation, how to improve swallowing, and stroke risk factors.
AFib 2gether allows patients to enter their clinical data and calculates their annual stroke risk scores. The information is provided to a healthcare provider before the next visit to help the patient make an informed decision about anticoagulation therapy.
“We believe that the widespread use of smartphones and apps may improve patient care in every part of the world, and in particular in those parts where updated guideline consultation is not readily available. However, in our study, we found that apps to implement guidelines by a clinical decision support system are still lacking. Our hope is that these apps will increase in the future,” said Pilato.
Commenting on this review for Medscape, Amy Guzik, MD, associate professor of neurology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, said that all physicians are looking for opportunities to use technology, especially in stroke, to diagnose and treat patients in the best way they can.
Dr Amy Guzik
“Figuring out ways to increase efficiency and get the word out to our patients is very important to us and is probably why there are so many apps out there,” said Guzik, who also is a spokesperson for the American Academy of Neurology.
“There are some ways such apps could be particularly useful. One is in remote hospitals that might not have a neurologist. Helping with the diagnosis and determining what is a bad stroke that needs to go to a higher level of medical care, or whether it is something the local hospital could take care of, would be useful,” said Guzik.
“Also helping EMS figure out which hospital to go to, or once they are on their way, being able to talk to the neurologist or neurosurgeon or the emergency room doctor and make a plan before the patient gets here, so we can expedite care when the patient arrives, is where apps can be particularly useful,” she added.
There are limitations to what apps can do, however. In the case of stroke, patients may often have important barriers that do not allow them to use apps at all, she said.
“Regardless of how they are being taken care of, a lot of our stroke patients will have problems with technology. A stroke can make texting difficult. Patients may have language difficulties, weakness, or cognitive impairment. They are relying on caregivers. All of this makes it difficult for a tech solution to be the automatic solution, unless things are done in a thoughtful way to make sure that it is appropriate for stroke patients.
“Also, there are a lot of elderly patients who may not necessarily be the most tech savvy and do not have as much digital literacy as younger patients. Another limitation to consider is that some people may not even have easy access to technology. So we must make sure that this is all done with an equity focus,” said Guzik.
The study was funded by the Associazione Nazionale fra le Imprese Assicuratrici (ANIA). Pilato and Guzik reported no relevant financial relationships.
Journal of Stroke. Published online Sept. 30, 2022. Full text.
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