(HealthDay)—Based on repeated measures, 9/11-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased mortality risk, according to a study published online Feb. 5 in JAMA Network Open.
Ingrid Giesinger, from the World Trade Center Health Registry in Long Island City, New York, and colleagues conducted a longitudinal study of 63,666 Registry enrollees (29,270 responders and 34,396 civilians) to examine whether 9/11-related probable PTSD is associated with mortality risk. PTSD assessments were conducted at baseline (wave 1: 2003 to 2004) and during follow-up (wave 2: 2006 to 2007; wave 3: 2011 to 2012; and wave 4: 2015 to 2016).
The likelihood of having PTSD was higher for participants who were middle-aged, female, non-Latino black, or Latino. The researchers found that 2,349 enrollees died during follow-up (including 230 external-cause deaths and 487 cardiovascular deaths). In time-varying analyses, among all enrollees, PTSD correlated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and external-cause mortality; the adjusted hazard ratios were of greater magnitude compared with analyses examining baseline PTSD. Time-varying PTSD was associated with an increased risk for all-cause, cardiovascular, and external-cause mortality among responders (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.91, 1.95, and 2.40, respectively) and among civilians (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.54, 1.72, and 2.11, respectively).
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